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Anatomy

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM-The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or damages from outside. The integumentary system includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails.

MUSCULOSKELETEAL SYSTEM-The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body. The muscular systems in vertebrates are controlled through the nervous system although some muscles can be completely autonomous.

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM-The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM-The essential components of the human cardiovascular system are the heart, blood and blood vessels. It includes the pulmonary circulation, a “loop” through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a “loop” through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.

FEMALE GINITAL SYSTEM AND PREGNANCY -The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In the human the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a foetus to full term.

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology. … Pregnancy is typically divided into three trimesters.

MALE GENITAL SYSTEM-The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction. These organs are located on the outside of the body and within the pelvis.

URINARY SYSTEM-The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM-The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion. Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has many stages.

MEDIASTINUM AND DIAPHRAGM- The mediastinum is also known as the thoracic cavity. It is a collection of organs and structures held together by loose connective tissue, which includes the heart and its attendant vessels, lungs, esophagus, trachea, thymus, thoracic duct and other anatomical structures.

HEMIC AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM-The hemic and lymphatic system, instead, covers procedures of the spleen, bone marrow and stem cells, and the lymph nodes. The spleen is similar in structure to the lymph nodes, and acts as a blood filter (hence ‘hemic’).

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM-The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that secrete those hormones directly into the circulatory system to regulate the function of distant target organs, and the feedback loops which modulate hormone release so that homeostasis is maintained.

NERVOUS SYSTEM-The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events.

SENSES-A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception. The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and philosophy of perception.

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